"Adding energy to a material to make large pieces smaller"
Energy + Material = Size Reduction
Different types of size reduction equipment are available and each has its own method of reduction. The right machine for the task is the one that can add energy most efficiently for the application.
From the beginning of time, humans have found it necessary to make little pieces out of big ones – stone, ore, ice, grain and more. It was a slow, laborious process for many centuries. Then in the Stone Age came the first breakthrough – we call it a hammer – and it worked better than ever. It worked so well, in fact, that it's still one of the most widely used tools in the world.
Today, there are many different size reduction machines available to make little pieces out of big ones. Particle size-reduction equipment includes primary impact crushers and secondary crushers as well as milling machines - cage mills, hammer mills, pulverizers and grinders.
Materials processed fall into broad categories including abrasive, non-abrasive, wet or dry, sticky and friable. Experience evaluating these factors helps target the correct equipment for each unique project.
What is an Impact Crusher?
Impact size reduction incorporates striking to pulverize material. The primary types of impact crushers include -- horizontal shaft impactors (HSI), cage mill pulverizers, and vertical shaft impactors (VSI). Each impactor can be further designated as primary and secondary rotor crusher as well as tertiary and quaternary crushers. This particular designation is dependent on which processing stage the equipment is being utilized.
Crushers are engineered for a maximum feed size, target output size, and total capacity, but selecting a crusher on these criteria alone is merely half the task. Every size reduction project requires evaluation of the complete process to maximize production and keep operating costs low.
Crusher Throughput Production
Feed enters the crushing chamber and meets the breaker bars or plates propelling feed against the breaker plates resulting in impact reduction. There are no screens or grates holding material inside impact crushers, so material is efficiently processed at high rates for low costs.
Impact crusher applications
Coal, Energy & Biomass
Minerals & Mining
Brick, Clay & Ceramics
and many more…
What is a Cage Mill?
A cage mill is an internally fed impactor that crushes grinds or pulverizes many different materials to specified degrees of fineness.
Early cage mill crushers were used principally to crush materials that were not particularly abrasive – corn, salt, coal, clay. After its invention, numerous applications were discovered and soon cage mills were used for crushing chemicals, clay and fertilizer materials. It wasn’t until the 1930s that the true value of cage mills as an agricultural limestone crusher, a size reduction mill and beneficiation was realized. Cage mills can be configured in two, four, and six row designs, each with their own unique crushing applications.
What Industries Use Them?
Clay & Shale
Distilled Dry Grains (DDG and DDGS)
Brick - Commercial & Residential
Pavers & Roof Tile
What is a Hammer Mill?
A hammer mill is a crusher that can grind, pulverize, and crush a wide range of materials. This crusher employs a rain of hammer blows to shatter and disintegrate the material. Hammer mills produce a finish product size that is dependent upon: Openings in perforated screens or grate bars, Number, size and type of hammers, Grinding plate setting and Rotor speed.
Standard service can be performed with common hand tools. Machines can be rebuilt over and over, saving you money. Wood hammer mills, also called wood hogs are special heavy-duty hammer mills specifically designed to process wood and fibrous waste without the use of high maintenance knives. Machines have simple designs with rugged construction that make them easy to operate and maintain.
Hammer Mill Applications
Biomass & Biofuels
Crab, Clam & Oyster Shells
Soy Bean Expeller Cake
What is a Fine Grinder?
The number and kind of grinders are as diverse as the materials they are designed to reduce. The earliest examples are as simple a mortar and pestle and have evolved to include the horse mill, windmill and watermill.
Today, fine grind products include modern air swept material handling and classification methods to efficiently produce consistent finely ground powder products.
Fine Grinding Applications
A wide variety of industries rely on fine grinders including…
Soap & Detergent
What is a Lump Breaker?
Lump-breaking equipment is able to reduce lumps created in the production, storage or transportation of bulk solids and powders - without generating excessive dust and fines. The rotation of specially shaped blades through a fixed comb gives an efficient lump breaking action.
Lump Crushing Applications
What is a Chain Mill?
Chain mills represent a cost-effective crushing solution for reducing a wide variety of materials. The simple design features a chain curtain at the impact end to allow for a swinging action requiring little maintenance.
Chain mill crushers can handle a large volume of tailings per hour. An especially effective fertilizer crusher, our chain mill crusher series is engineered to break up lumps in superphosphate, triple-superphosphate, granular and conventional fertilizer tailings.
Chain Mill Applications
(This article was written for our client Stedman Machine Company for POWDER BULK ENGINEEERING's eNews. Lohre & Associates did the illustrations as well.)