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Win With Technical Articles

Tue, May 03, 2016 @ 12:33 AM / by Chuck Lohre posted in industrial photography, Process Equipment Marketing, Industrial Marketing Content, Marketing Content, Content Creation, illustration, technical illustration, Content Marketing

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Dear Powder Bulk Solids Show "Win with Technical Articles" winners,

  • Will Dartnall and Mark Gruber, Buckhorn
  • Jim Kinder, Carrier
  • Greg Boyer, Hosokawa
  • Steven Misiak, B&P Littleford Day
  • Wes Vinson, PEBCO
  • Mike Mullins, TEMA
  • Jasilyn Fuller, VEGA
  • Rob Driscoll, Robatel
  • Maria Petsola-Crawley and Dean Wicks, Macawber
  • Courtney Ridenour, ADF Engineering
  • Greg Thomas and Paul Hancock, Lewellyn

Thanks for visiting our website and claiming your prize. We hope you'll enjoy the game. Just go to Major League Baseball's site and let me know what game you would like to attend. Chuck Lohre, chuck@lohre.com, cell 513-260-9025.

### Beginning of the most successful Technical Article we have written. The phones started ringing as soon as it was published. We hear a lot about content marketing and social media (and we believe in it), but in the industrial marketing world we have always been about content marketing. 

And content doesn't get any better than a feature article in a major trade publication like this one that ran in April 2016 Pit & Quarry magazine. To succeed, you must be honest and educate readers even if you don't manufacturer every sort of variation of a particular process solution. Editor, Darren Constantino, uses our articles as examples of what it takes to get published in his magazine. Don't worry, they are calling you, not your competition.

Vertical Shaft Impactor (VSI) Primer

By Eric Marcotte, Inside Sales Manager, Stedman Machine Company 

Technical Article, Graphic Design, and Illustration for Stedman Machine

Introduction

All roads, you might say, lead to the Vertical Shaft Impactor (VSI) because these crushers make it possible to create roadways and just about everything else. Francis E. Agnew of California patented one of the first Vertical Shaft Impactors in 1927. His configuration stacked three VSIs atop each other to produce sand, thus starting the VSI evolution. 

Today, VSI crushers – and the folks who rely on them – have produced many configurations to include everything from the addition of cascading material into the crushing chamber, to air swept separation of lighter product. One version suspends the shaft from above like a sugar centrifuge. It’s also one of the most feature-patented crushers, so some of the things mentioned here might be unique to a single manufacturer. VSIs apply a large amount of energy to crush material and that’s why it’s one of the most versatile crusher configurations today.

VSI Benefits

When it comes to producing materials such as aggregate for road making, VSI crushers use a high-speed rotor and anvils for impact crushing rather than compression force for the energy needed for size reduction. In a VSI, material is accelerated by centrifugal force by a rotor against the outer anvil ring, it then fractures and breaks along natural faults throughout the rock or minerals. The product is generally of a consistent cubical shape, making it excellent for modern Superpave highway asphalt applications. The rotor speed (feet per minute) controls final particle size.

The VSI’s high cubical fracture percentage maximizes first-pass product yield and produces tighter particle size distribution. It has a high-throughput capacity ideal for beneficiation (elimination of soft material). Properly configured the VSI accepts highly abrasive materials. It has simple operation and maintenance. You can quickly change product size by changing rotor speed or cascade ratio. Some models have reversible wear parts to reduce downtime. The VSI typically has low operating costs even in high-moisture applications because of reduced energy costs and low wear cost per ton.

VSI Disadvantages

There are some feed size limitations with a VSI because of the small feed area available in the center of the rotor. Tramp material in the feed such as gloves, tools, etc. can cause problems with imbalance. The high RPM and HP require careful balance maintenance such as replacing shoes on both sides of the rotor at the same time. High wear part cost may be a problem for some hard abrasive materials, but the VSI may still be the best option.

Technical Article for Marketing Client Stedman MachineVSI Applications

Major limestone applications are for Superpave asphalt aggregates, road base, gravel, sand and cement. Industrial uses include: corundum, corundite, ferro silicon, glass, refractories, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide and zeolite. Mining applications include: bauxite, burnt magnesite, iron ore, non-ferrous metal ore, perlite and trona sulfate. VSIs are excellent for everything from abrasive materials to waste and recycling applications.

VSI Crushing Method

The VSI is typically used after a primary or secondary crusher. This makes a VSI ideal for making sand and for making coarse and medium aggregates for concrete/asphalt production.

Feed size and characteristics will affect the application of a VSI. The feed size is limited by the opening in the center of the rotor. Normally less than 5-inch material is desired, but very large VSIs can handle up to 12-inch feed. Another feature that will affect application is moisture, which can make the feed sticky. Required production capacity is the final limiting criteria. Large primary horizontal shaft impactors can output up to 1600 TPH and more. 1000 TPH is about the maximum for a VSI because of the limiting motor size and the rising G-force of a high-speed rotor, which is calculated by multiplying the radius times the square of the RPM.

Shoe configurations are many: rock on rock, groups of rollers, special tip wear parts and many others. The metallurgy of the shoes is also highly varied. Rotors can have three to six shoes. The number of shoes is typically governed by the diameter of the rotor. The larger the diameter rotor, the more openings are possible. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mathematical models are utilized to simulate the flow and collision forces to reveal solutions for lower wear cost, consistent final product, and higher energy efficiency.

The material to be crushed is fed into the center of an open or closed rotor. The rotor rotates at high rpm, accelerating the feed and throwing it with high energy into the crushing chamber. When the material hits the anvil ring assembly, it shatters, and then the cubical shaped product falls through the opening between the rotor and the anvil and down to the conveyor below.

The rotor speed (feet per minute) controls final particle size. Speeding up the rotor will produce more fines, slowing it down will produce fewer fines.

Feeding methods

Center feed

The typical VSI is fed, from above, into the center of its rotor. The material is then flung across an open void to the crushing chamber.It then impacts the outer anvil ring. This crushing action imparts very high energy to the material and is very effective on most types of material. It gives a very uniform and consistent grade of product.

Cascade feeding

In cascade feeding, material bypasses the rotor and enters the crushing chamber from above. It’s called cascade feeding because as material fills up a large feed bowl, with an outer diameter larger than the outer diameter of the rotor, it spills over the side and falls into the crushing chamber from above, bypassing the rotor. The effect of increasing feed through cascade is similar to slowing the rotor. Cascade feeding in amounts up to 10 percent may have no effect on particle size distribution or quality. The product gradation curve and product shape will change, if an increased amount of cascade feeding is used.

(caption: Vertical Shaft Impactor, No Cascade vs. With Cascade Feed, Particle Size Distribution Chart)

Technical Article for Marketing Client Stedman Machine CoRotor and Anvil Configurations

The VSI features multiple rotor/anvil configurations for various applications. From open or enclosed rotors to the tubular rotor, each machine is configured for their unique application. In many cases the rotor table, rotor assemblies, anvil ring or rock shelf are interchangeable, allowing maximum application flexibility.

• Open top metal rotor shoe on metal anvil

The open top metal rotor is good for large feed or medium to very hard material, but it will work best for softer materials. It can handle medium abrasive, dry or wet, but not sticky materials. High reduction ratios are common, which are excellent for sand and gravel production in closed loop systems. Shoe shape can change the production size range. A straight shoe face design produces finer product, and a curved shoe face design produces coarser material.

• Tubular metal rotor shoe on metal anvil

The tubular rotor creates higher tip-speeds, which increases first pass yield with tighter particle size distribution and also reduces the recirculation loads. One unique feature is that the rotor rotation is reversible, allowing wear on both sides of the tube. Rotating the tube itself one-quarter turn also doubles the wear.

• Enclosed metal rotor shoe on metal anvil

The enclosed top plate on a rotor primarily prevents material from escaping from the top of the rotor, which could happen with an overfed open top rotor. (caption: Rock shelf when VSI at rest. In operation, the brown rock fills the chamber to the upper roof ring. Rock impacts rock in operation.)

Technical Article for Industrial Marketing Client, Stedman Machine• Enclosed autogenous rock rotor table on autogenous rock shelf

Any time the material or rock is used as an impact wear surface the term autogenous is used. Putting a top on the rotor table and shoes allows autogenous use. During operation of the VSI, a bed of material can be designed to build up inside the rotor against each of the shoe wall segments. The bed, which is made up of material that has been fed to the rotor, extends to a wear tip. The bed protects the shoe wall segment from wear.

Concerning the rock shelf anvil, it forms a near vertical wall of material upon which the accelerated material impacts. “Rock-on-rock” crushing reduces maintenance but can require up to 30 percent of material recirculation before meeting size requirements. Also, the rock shelf anvil absorbs energy that could otherwise be used for breaking, which may reduce efficiency. More RPM may be needed to achieve the same result as a solid metal anvil.

Good for medium abrasive materials, rock-on-rock configurations of either or both rotor and anvil may produce consistent material with low-wear cost and can handle wet but not sticky conditions. Reduction ratios from 2:1 to 5:1 can be expected. It’s widely used for quarried materials, such as sand and gravel.

_________________________________________________

Due to the many configurations of the VSI feed, rotor, anvil and open- or closed- system design; testing is the only way to ensure proper application of a VSI crusher.

_________________________________________________

Summary

The VSI is one of the most versatile crushers available on the market today. Even with some limitations, like feed size and output capacity, VSI features have been and continue to be developed to maximize first-pass yields and lower operating costs. If you test your process on full-scale equipment before choosing your VSI, you won’t be disappointed.

Stedman Machine Company, 129 Franklin Street, Aurora, IN 4001, 812-926-0038, www.stedman-machine.com, sales@stedman-machine.com

### End of technical article, thanks for looking it over. Now let's, "Play Ball."

About the author: Eric Marcotte joined Stedman Machine Company and its affiliate Innovative Processing Solutions in 2010. He has a Mining Engineering Degree from the University of Kentucky. 

About Stedman Machine Company

Stedman Machine Company works closely with its customers to determine the best, most cost-effective, efficient size reduction method and equipment for specific applications. Stedman’s line of equipment includes: Cage Mills, Grand Slam™ and Mega Slam™ Horizontal Shaft Impactors, V-Slam™ Vertical Shaft Impactors, Hammer Mills, Aurora Lump Breakers, Micro-Max™ and Vertical Roller Mill Air Swept Fine Grinders. Stedman operates a complete testing and toll processing facility staffed by experienced technicians with full-scale equipment, allowing customers to witness accurate crushing test results, predicted output capacities and processing data. Support services include system design and 24-hour parts and service.

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Technical Illustration Guide for Marketing Communications

Tue, Jan 15, 2013 @ 10:52 AM / by Chuck Lohre posted in Industrial Advertising, Literature Design, Process Equipment Marketing, Creative Industrial Marketing and Advertising, Industrial Marketing and Advertising Literature, Business to Business Marketing, B2B Marketing, B2B Advertising, Equipment Marketing and Advertising, Advertising Design, Industrial Process Equipment, Advertisement Design, Advertising Literature, print advertising, illustration, technical illustration, Corporate Advertising Literature, print advertisements, Advertising Agency

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Technical illustration has evolved along with the industrial revolution and then the computer age to be an integral part of marketing communications.

Fortunately, it has also become easier over the years and now technical illustrations can be mastered by all types of employees.

Technical Illustration Red Shift resized 600

Notice how easy it is to see various elements in the illustrations above. Important parts are tinted red and the red color projects off the paper into the foreground. The blue border recedes into the background and makes the panel appear in three layers: Background blue border, middle ground gray valve and foreground red components.

Still, many lessons learned over the centuries by illustration artists haven’t been written into computer software and that is where history can come in to make your technical drawing better:
1. Make sure your illustration can be copied in black and white. Use black lines for the most important and blue tints that will disappear when you copy the illustration.
2. Red color brings the object to the foreground and blue recedes the item.
3. Better to use callout lines and place the descriptive text next to the described item than labeling the illustration A-Z or 1-N.

Technical Illustration Sequences resized 600

To the right, here’s another example of warm colors being used for important parts of the technical illustration and blue tinted objects receding behind the particles. It helps communication to use the red shift to help communication and not hinder it.

Technical drawings are quick and easy with Adobe Illustrator but communication takes a quantum leap when you add an isometric dimension. And all the measurements in the three dimensions can be taken directly off of the drawing.

For the ultimate in communication learn to use a 3D program like AutoCAD or Lightwave. Objects can be rotated to where they communicate what you are trying to portray and then fine tune the sectioning.

Steps 1, 2 and 3, will never go out of fashion for describing a sequence of events in a technical illustration. As is shown in this operation drawing, to the right, the viewer can easily see the important parts because they are tinted red as you go through the process.

Technical Illustration Chart resized 600

Our resident illustration artist, Art Director, Robert Jeffries, has created the perfect dimensional drawing here by coloring the important things black and the less important items blue. The dimensions and their locations will come across in a poor thermographic copy.

Technical Illustration Separtation of Planes

Don’t let your chart junk interfer with communication! When laying out a chart, remember the numerals are the most important thing. Don’t make the grid black lines and the text blue! It won’t copy and it will give your reader eye strain.

Your eye naturally follows the three step process in this technical illustration, to the right, because your eye follows the red colored objects.

Classic tinting and shaping of the different planes in your technical illustration is important to separate the planes. Remember, a change in direction means a change in tint. Any object can be clearly drawn by just using gray tints. Adobe Illustrator has some great tools for this as you can position the changing highlights across a surface to make it look like anything from round to oval.


Always remember that we read from left to right and from top to bottom. Arrange your multi-step technical illustrations in that order to make them flow most naturally. If you’re illustrating for other languages follow their conventions. Japanese read from top to bottom and from left to right.

It might sound obvious but the closer an item is to another the more related it should be. That means captions should be close to the object it describes. Even visual elements relate more to each other if they are closer together. The further away an object is from another the less it relates to it. And this also means that items that relate equally to each othr should be spaced equally from each other.

Technical Illustration Two Step Process resized 600

This simple two step process comes across beautifully because it reads from left to right, the callouts are near the object and it would still communicate it you removed the blue color.

 



Simple Technical Illustration resized 600
All the components we have discussed in this blog come together here in this simple but beautifully communicated technical illustration, to the right. The black lines clearly outline the important features. The warm colors emphasis the features being discussed and if copied would turn a medium gray tint.

In the Diverter Valve illustration below, you will see how naturally understood the tan colored pebbles flow. It’s because they seem to be floating on top of the blue colored valve. The pebbles’ color helps communicate the message.

We hope you have enjoyed this primer from Cincinnati technical illustration and drawing from Lohre & Assoc. It's what comes from over 35 years of experience, so don't get discouraged. Good design is obvious. If you keep that in mind you won't go wrong. Sometimes I say to my staff, "Does it pass the two-by-four and a six-pack test?" Have your audience drink a six pack of an adult beverage and hit them over the head with a two-by-four wooden board. If they can't understand what you are trying to communicate, go back to the drawing board! Chuck Lohre.

Technical Illustration & Photo

 

If you would like to learn more about the creative process, please request our Creative Guide, below.

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Request our free guide to Creative Marketing Communications,

Chuck Lohre's AdVenture Presentation of examples and descriptions from Ed Lawler's book of the same title - 10 Rules On Creating Business-To-Business Ads

Industrial Marketing Creative Guide by Lohre Marketing and Advertising, Cincinnati

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